IELTS GT Reading Test 13: Section # 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40, which are based on Reading Passages below.
Write answers to questions in boxes 28-40 on your answer sheet.
Read the text below and answer Questions 28-40.
The text below has seven sections, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number i-x, in boxes 28-34 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i. Sightings in Britain
ii. Origins of the name.
iii. Eating Habits
iv. Dwelling places
v. Sightings in the world
vi. Favourite places
viii. Amount of species
ix. Food storage facilities
x. Appearance and temperament
A. The name nuthatch is derived from nut hacker, reflecting the bird’s method of opening up nuts by jamming them into a crevice then hammering at them. Old country names include mud dabbler and mud stopper, both of which note the bird’s curious habit of plastering mud around the entrance hole to its nest.
B. Unlike the treecreeper, which only moves up the trunk of a tree, nuthatches will move both up and down. Once a bird restricted largely to south-eastern England, the 20th century witnessed a spread to the north, with breeding in Scotland first confirmed in 1989. Studies have shown that large gardens with oak trees provide the optimum habitat for this species. One of the reasons for the expansion seems to be the nuthatch’s increasing use of bird feeders and bird tables.
C. As anyone who has nuthatches visiting their feeders will know, they are bold and aggressive, able to stand their ground when larger birds such as starlings attempt to intimidate them. They will take food from the bird table to store elsewhere: this can lead to sunflowers sprouting in expected places. Pairs are strongly territorial throughout the year. The fact that food is stored within the territory strengthens the need to defend it.
D. Though they will readily adopt nest boxes, they cannot resist plastering mud around the entrance hole, even if the latter is already the right size. The most favoured natural site for a nuthatch is the old nest hole of a great spotted woodpecker. Nuthatches are one of the nosiest woodland birds in the early spring but are relatively silent when breeding.
E. There are 24 different species of nuthatches in the world: our bird has much the widest distribution, as it breeds continually from Portugal to Korea and Japan. The nuthatch has never been recorded in Ireland. Most nuthatches are highly sedentary, seldom moving far from where they hatched. The average distance travelled by a ringed adult nuthatch is less than a kilometre.
F. No British-ringed individuals have ever been recovered abroad, while similarly no birds ringed on the Continent have been found here. Individuals breeding in Sweden and Norway have distinctive white underparts, unlike the peachy buff of our birds. Remarkably, a red-breasted nuthatch from North America spent nearly seven months at Holkham in Norfolk from October 1989 to May 1990.
G. Perhaps surprisingly, the nuthatch has received little in the way of study in Britain, and most of our knowledge comes from work carried out in Sweden and Belgium. Numbers are known to fluctuate quite widely from year to year, probably reflecting the availability of seed during the winter.
Questions 35 – 37
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 35-37 on your answer sheet.
As people who regularly see nuthatches will know, they are very confident and can be quite 35 …………………….., so that they are able to defend themselves when larger birds come and try to scare them. They will take food from bird tables and feeders to store, this can lead to many flowers including 36 ………………………… growing in many places. They often travel two together, and are tied to their dwelling place, because their food is housed here, they 37 …………………. their territory.
Questions 38 – 40
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the text for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.
• The name nuthatch comes from nut hacker, which reflects the bird’s method of opening up nuts by jamming them into a crevice then 38 …………………… at them.
• Old country names include mud dabbler and mud stopper, both of which note the bird’s curious habit of plastering mud around the entrance hole to its nest.
• Unlike the 39 …………………….., which only moves up the trunk of a tree, nuthatches will move both up and down.
• Studies have shown that large gardens with oak trees provide the best 40 ………………….. for this species.
[Text Source: https://www.livingwithbirds.com]