Essay 392 – There is an increasing movement of workers from rural areas

GT Writing Task 2 / Essay Sample # 392

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

In many developing countries, there is an increasing movement of workers from rural areas to cities.

Why do you think this happens?
What problems can this cause?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

Model Answer:

The movement of workers from rural areas to big cities is a phenomenon observed in many developing countries. This rural-to-urban migration is driven by various factors. While it can bring opportunities for individuals seeking better livelihoods, it also poses significant challenges for both the migrants and the cities they relocate to.

One of the main reasons for this migration is the push factors present in rural areas. Economic limitations, lack of employment opportunities, and limited access to basic services and infrastructure push individuals to seek better prospects in urban centres. They are drawn to cities in search of better job opportunities, improved living conditions, and access to education and healthcare. Additionally, the allure of the urban lifestyle, with its conveniences, amenities, and social opportunities, often acts as a pull factor attracting rural residents.

However, the influx of rural migrants into cities can lead to several problems. One major challenge is the strain it puts on urban infrastructure and services. The sudden increase in population can overwhelm existing housing, transportation, sanitation, and healthcare facilities, leading to overcrowding and inadequate resources. This can result in a decline in the quality of life for both the migrants and the long-term urban residents. For instance, the rapid rural-to-urban migration in many developing countries has led to slum formation in cities, where migrants often live in makeshift settlements without access to basic amenities like clean water and sanitation. This not only poses health risks but also strains the urban infrastructure and further exacerbates the disparity between urban and rural living conditions.

Additionally, rural-to-urban migration can contribute to social problems. The influx of migrants from diverse cultural backgrounds can create tensions and social inequalities within cities. Migrants may face discrimination, exclusion, and challenges in integrating into urban society, while the existing urban population may feel threatened by competition for resources and job opportunities. For instance, in some urban areas, tension can arise between the local population and migrant workers due to perceived competition for jobs and resources. This can lead to social unrest and conflicts, disrupting the harmony within the city. In extreme cases, it may even lead to xenophobia and hate crimes against migrants.

In conclusion, it is crucial for governments and policymakers to address issues created by rural-to-urban migration by implementing effective urban planning, providing affordable housing, improving infrastructure, and promoting social integration to ensure sustainable and inclusive urban development.

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